- nasrani/masihi - al-Masih
- buddha - Gautama Buddha
- zarathusa - the name of the person who bring pennon or flag, zarathusa
- Yahudi - the name of a clan, Yahudi.
While ISLAM not specific to any races and it's not only a religion but
Based on this Aayah ( An-Nisa': 125 ):
وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ ديناً ممَّنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ , لِلهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ وَاتَّبَعَ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَاتَّخَذَ اللهُ إبْراهِيمَ خَلِيلاً
meaning : Who can be better in religion than one who submits his whole self to Allah, does good, and follows the way of Abraham the true in Faith? For Allah did take Abraham for a friend.
Definition of Ad-Deen : it is belief in the existence of a Being that is supreme and unseen, has perceptions and volition, while He manages and controls matters that concerned mankind and universe.
Basic Characteristics of Islam
- Simplicity, rationality and practicality.
=Islam is a religion without any mythology.Its teachings are simple and intelligible. It is free from superstitions and irrational beliefs. The oneness of Allah, the prophet hood of Muhammad, and the concept of life after death are the basic articles of its faith. They are based on reason and sound logic. All of the teachings of Islam flow from those basic beliefs and are simple and straightforward. There is no hierarchy of priests, no farfetched abstractions, no complicated rites and rituals. Everybody may approach the Qur'an directly and translate its dictates into practice. Islam awakens in man the faculty of reason and exhorts him to use his intellect. It enjoins him to see things in the light of reality.
The Qur'an advises him to pray:
وَقُلْ رَبِّ زِدْنِى عِلْمًا
- Unity of Matter and Spirit.
= A unique feature of Islam is that it does not divide life into watertight compartments of matter and spirit. It stands not for denial of life but for the fulfillment of life. Islam does not believe in asceticism. It does not ask man to avoid material things. It holds that spiritual elevation is to be achieved by living piously in the rough and tumble of life, not by renouncing the world. The Qur'an advises us to pray as follows:
رَبَّنَآ ءَاتِنَا فِي الدُنيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِى الأَخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ
"Our Lord! Give us something fine in this world as well as something fine in the Hereafter." (2:201)
=Islam is not a religion in the common and distorted sense, for it does not confine its scope to one's private life. It is a complete way of life and is present in every field of human existence. Islam provides guidance for all aspects of life - individual and social, material and moral, economic and political, legal and cultural, and national and international. The Qur'an enjoins man to embrace Islam without any reservation and to follow Allah's guidance in all areas of life. In fact, it was an unfortunate day when the scope of religion was confined to the private life of man and its social and cultural role was reduced to naught, as has happened in this century. No other factor, perhaps, has been more important in causing the decline of religion in the modern age than its retreat into the realm of private life. In the words of a modern philosopher:
"Religion asks us to separate things of Allah from those of Caesar.Such a judicial separation between the two means the degrading of both the secular and the sacred ... That religion is worth little if the conscience of its followers is not disturbed when war clouds are hanging over us all and industrial conflicts are threatening social peace. Religion has weakened man's social conscience and moral sensitivity by separating the things of Allah from those of Caesar."
Islam totally denounces this concept of religion and clearly states that its objectives are the purification of the soul and the reform and reconstruction of society.
As we read in the Qur'an:
لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلَنَا بِالبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَنزَلْنَا مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْمِيْزَانَ لِيَقُومَ النَّاسُ بِالْقِسْطِ وَأَنْزَلْنَا الحَدِيدَ فِيهِ بَاْسٌ شَدِيدٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلِيَعْلَمَ اللهُ مَنْ يَنْصُرُهُ, ورُسُلَهُ, بِالْغَيْبِ إِنَّ اللهَ قَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ
"We sent aforetime Our Messengers with Clear Signs and sent down with them the Book and the Balance (of Right and Wrong), that men way stand forth in justice; and We sent down Iron, in which is (material for) mighty war, as well as many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who it is that will help, unseen, Him and His Messengers: for Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might (and able to enforce His Will)." (57:25)
- Balance between the Individual and Society.
According to the Qur'an:
وَأَن لَيْسَ لِلْلإِنسَانِ إِلاَّ مَا سَعَى
Man shall have nothing but what he strives for. (53:39)
- Universality and Humanism.
The message of Islam is for the whole of the human race. Allah, in Islam, is the Allah of all the world (Qur'an 1:1) and the Prophet is a Messenger for the whole of mankind. In the words of the Quran:
قُلْ يَأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّى رَسُولُ اللهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا
O People! I am but a Messenger from Allah to you all. (7:158)
وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلاَّ رَحْمَةً لّلْعَالَمِينَ
We have sent you only as a mercy for everybody in the universe. (21:107)
In Islam, all men are equal, regardless of color, language, race, or nationality. It addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status, and wealth. There can be no denying the fact that such barriers have always existed and continue to exist today in the so-called enlightened age. Islam removes all of these impediments and proclaims the ideal of the whole of humanity being one family of Allah.
Islam is international in its outlook and approach and does not admit barriers and distinctions based on color, clan, blood, or territory, as was the case before the advent of Muhammad. Unfortunately, these prejudices remain rampant in different forms even in this modern age. Islam wants to unite the entire human race under one banner. To a world torn by national rivalries and feuds, it presents a message of life and hope and of a glorious future.
- Permanence and Change.
The Quran and the Sunnah contain the eternal guidance given by the Lord of the universe. This guidance comes from Allah, Who is free from the limitations of space and time and, as such, the principles of individual and social behavior revealed by Him are based on reality and are eternal. But Allah has revealed only broad principles and has endowed man with the freedom to apply them in every age in the way suited to the spirit and conditions of that age. It is through ijtihad (intellectual effort to arrive at the truth) that people of every age try to implement and apply the divine guidance to the problems of their times. Thus the basic guidance is of a permanent nature, while the method of its application can change in accordance with the peculiar needs of every age. That is why Islam always remains as fresh and modern as tomorrow's morn.
- Complete Record of Teachings Preserved.
Last, but not least, is the fact that the teachings of Islam have been preserved in their original form. As a result, Allah's guidance is available without adulteration of any kind. The Qur'an is the revealed book and word of Allah, which has been in existence for the last fourteen hundred years. It is still available in its original form. Detailed accounts of the life of the Prophet and of his teachings are available in their pristine purity. There has not been even one change made in this unique historic record. The sayings and the entire record of the life of the Prophet have been handed down to us with unprecedented precision and authenticity in works of the hadith and the sirah. Even a number of non-Muslim critics admit this eloquent fact. Professor Reynold A. Nicholson, in his A Literary History of the Arabs, says:
"The Koran is an exceedingly human document, reflecting every phase of Muhammad's personality and standing in close relation to the outward events of his life; so that there we have materials of unique and incontestable authority for tracing the origin and early development of Islam, such materials as do not exist in the case of Buddhism or Christianity or any other ancient religion."
- Allah. God in Islam is strictly monotheistic. He has no partner or agent. He is the One and Only.
قُلْ هُوَ اللهُ أَحَدٌ . اللهُ الصَّمَدُ . لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ . وَلَمْ يَكُن لَهُ, كُفُوًا أَحَدُ
"Say: He is Allah, the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begets not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him. ( 112: 1-4)
- Books. The original text is still preserved until today.
إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ, لَحَافِظُونَ
" We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it ( from corruption )."
- Prophets. Messenger and Prophet are not same. Usually, a messenger is the prophet who was sent to mankind t reform mankind. He received a Divine Book while prophets did not. Not all prophets are messengers. Every messenger is a prophet, but not every prophet is a messenger. The Prophet Muhammad S.A.W is the last prophet and there is no prophet after him.
- Qiamah : makes our religion very unique. Muslims developing accountability and responsibility. In Islam, once died no return back. It is the day of judgemet.
هَذَا مَا تُوعَدُونَ لِيَومِ الْحِسَابِ
"Such is the Promise made, to you for the Day of Account!" (38:53)
- Qada' and Qadr (Pre-destination and Freewill) : Freewill - Freedom of will. Expecting to follow the Syariah of Allah. Allah create man and knows what man needs and He create laws available as man needs. Predestination - Only God knows. Islam will always optimistic.
- Shahadah : declaration - liberate man from all form of slavery. Those establish in their life, they are the people who are very brave and motivated because internalize the idea. They want to fulfill as a Khalifah. So, they need understand carefully.
- Solat : Something might be easy to think but difficult to practice in our daily life. Wudhuk is a spiritual cleansing. We must develop. Impact less if not understand clearly.
- Fasting during the month of Ramadhan : transform ourselves - medical ( flush toxic )
- Zakat : Islam encourages to be financely capable. Able to give random service to the poor. Islam promote bussiness, society that pro development. In the Past, Institutions like madrasah will funded by Zakat, Awaqif properties.
- Hajj ( pilgrimage ): Implication- quality of mankind, everybody doing the same thing. In the past, it take 2 months to go Mecca.
The Sharia (literally: "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".
Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.
Fiqh or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.
I think thats all from me..thank u